Monday, December 8, 2014

Define vitamin?/Write down the types of vitamin/Classify vitamins

 Definitions: Vitamins are organic non-calorigenic nutrients that are required in small quantities for man different biochemical function, which generally cannot be synthesized by the body and must therefore, supplied by the diet.
Or Vitamin B- complex are chemical substance required by the body very small amounts, they do not yield energy but gives us protective manner.

Classification: According to solubility-Vitamins are classified into two main group.
1.       Water soluble vitamins-Vitamins B-Complex-Vitamins C.
2.       Fat soluble vitamins-Vitamin A, Vitamin E, Vitamin D & Vitamin K.
Difference vitamins between water soluble and fat soluble
Fat soluble vitamins.
Difference between fat soluble and water soluble vitamins
Fat soluble vitamins
Water soluble vitamins
1. Soluble in fat
1. Soluble in water
2. Bile salts & Fats are essential for their absorption
2. They are easily absorbed.
3. Are not precursor of co-enzymes ( except vit-k)
3. Many of them are precursors of co-enzymes.
4. significant amounts are stored in the Liver & adipose tissue
4. Small amounts are stored in the body.
5. They are not readily excreted in the urine.
5. When ingested in excess of the body’s requirement they readily excreted in the urine.
6. Excess amounts in the body is toxic (specially vit-A & D)
6. As excreted in the urine, excess amount is not toxic.

Sunday, December 7, 2014

Define cell division. Describle the stage of mitosis cell division?

Cell division: Cell division is the process, which cells multiply be continuous series for growth and repair of tissue.
Stage of mitosis:
1. Prophase
2. Pro-metaphase
3. Metaphase
4. Anaphase
5. Telophase.
Prophase: Each chromosome splits into two chromatids at its centromere. Paired centroiles are separated from each other. Subsequently nuclear membrane disintegastes and the nucleolus disappears.
Pro-metaphase: It is the second phase of mitosis, Nuclear membrane and nucleolus dis appear. Protien made two poled spindle apparatus is obvious, There are two fibre in spindle apparatus. Spindle fibre-prolonged one to another pole, Chromosomal fibre- Attach with centromere of chromosome.
Middle part of spinals apparatus is known as equator region.
Metaphase: The centromere of each chromosomes organize them selves along the microtubles of the mitotic spindles.
Anaphase: Centromere splits longitudinally and two chromatin's separate. Each pair of newly formed chromosomes separate and migrate to the opposite pole of mitotiespindle.
Telophase: The new daughter chromosomes becomes covered by new nuclear membrane. Finally cytoplasm divides and the two complete new cells are fromed.

Anatomical planes

For anatomical studies, the body is often sectioned (cut) along a flat surface. The most useful body planes are sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes.
Sagittal plane: Is a vertical plane that divides the body into right and left parts. Asagittalplane that lies exactly in the midline is the mid sagittal plane. All other sagittal planes, offset from the midline, are para sagittal planes.
Frontal (coronal) planes: Lie vertically and divide the body into anterior and posterior parts.
Transverse plane: Runs horizontal from right to left, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts.

Saturday, December 6, 2014

What is connective tissue, Functions of connective tissue

What is connective tissue?
Connective tissues include those tissues that perform binding.
Support, transport, and nutritive functions in the body.

Functions of connective tissue-
1.       Binding and structural support.
2.       Protection.
3.       Insulation.
4.       Transport of substances within the body.

What is tissue? Classification of the tissue

What is tissue?
Collection of cell having similar, morphological
character and function is called tissue.

 Classification of the tissue-

1.       Epithelial tissue
2.       Connective tissue
3.       Muscular tissue
4.       Nervous tissue.

Name of the various functional system of the body

 Name of the various systems of human body-

1.       Integumentory system

2.       Skeletal system

3.       Muscular system

4.       Nervous system

5.       Endocrine system

6.       Digestive system

7.       Respiratory system

Directional terms about subject of anatomy

Directional terms are-
1.       Superior- Toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body. above. 
       Example- The thorax is superior to the abdomen.
2.       Inferior-A way from the head end or toward the bottom.
       Example- The legs are inferior to the trunk.
3.       Anterior- Toward the front of the body.
       Example- the navel is on the anterior side of the body.
4.       Posterior- Toward the back of the body: behind.
       Example- The heart is posterior to the ribs.
5.       Medial- toward the midline of the body.
       Example- The heart is medial to the lungs.
6.       Lateral- Away from the Medline of body.
       Example- The arms are laterel to the chest.
7.       Proximal- Closer to the orgin of the body part or the point 
       of attachment of a limb to the body trunk. 
       Example-The elbow is proximal to the wrist.
8.       Distal- Further from the orgin of a body part or the point 
       of attachment of a limb to the body trunk. 
       Example- The knee is distal to the thigh.
9.       Superficial-Toward the surface of the body.
       Example- The skin is superficial to the skeletal muscle.
10.   Deep- Away from the surface of the body.
       Example- The brain is deep to cranium.